### CWRU FLASHCARDS FOR THE PHYSICS ADVANCED PORTION OF THE GRE

**News flash about flashcards: Because of the pandemic, the pGRE will not be offered this Fall. Schools will not be asking for it and students will not be taking it in 2020. So relax and just concentrate on your classes and research and other extracurriculars! ‘**

**The pGRE will be offered in April 2021 according to the present plans by the ETS. So we are happy to tell you we have made some nice improvement, some small corrections, and added a half-dozen or so cards. Our figures are really nicer now!**

**The smartphone app will not have these small changes and we have not decided when we will update that app. As always, see below on getting free access to these apps.**

Now back to our introduction:

#### To wonderful physics students everywhere (not just at CWRU!):

Through the years we have developed flashcards to help students prepare for the physics advanced GRE. The intention is to provide as best we can the background material, including those formulas you need to recall quickly because you don’t have time to derive them. Our motivation was to address the omnipresent problem of students forgetting material, even forgetting basic formulas and descriptions. More than that, students need to learn how to read more carefully, to make simple math calculations and estimates without automatically reaching for a calculator (and woe to us if we mispunch a key and not know what to expect as a reasonable answer), and to deal with no partial credit if your answer is not right! A different sort of critical thinking is practiced here and not always in our classrooms. And practice working more quickly is never bad.

By now thousands of students have benefited from our effort, most of them outside of our own Case Western Reserve community.

### DISCLAIMER

Before we go further, the opinion can be found, perhaps particularly in various astronomy departments, that the physics GRE scores do not correlate well with the success of their students in grad school. There are folks who believe that, while the physics GRE measures some level of preparation, it perhaps does not do the same for ability. Whether or not there is a strong correlation between the physics GRE and graduate school performance, various schools continue to rely on it, in which case we want to offer our assistance. Our flashcards are an attempt to help prepare people for the physics GRE and give them the background information they need. And while we’re in the mode of “disclaiming,” and since we are getting ready to tell you how to work with our set of flashcards (for free!), we should say we have tried very hard to eliminate errors BUT there surely remain things that need to be improved. Let us know if and when you find any glitches remaining in our new edition — see below.

The advanced physics test has always been made up of 100 multiple-choice questions (with the usual labeling of “a” through “e” for the answers) on undergraduate physics material. Guessing is no longer penalized in that your final score is simply found from the number of correct answers without any correction made from wrong answers. Thus you will always benefit from guessing. It still will help your guess if you do it smartly – like ruling out obviously wrong answers.

We have well over 250 cards with questions on one side and answers on the other. We carefully studied six of the past physics GRE exams made available for general study by the Princeton Review, plus a GRE sampler (a total of 631 problems) and developed cards to provide the necessary background for all those test questions.

We confess that a (very) few cards are more detailed and complex than might be necessary. The desire to make more complete and more general statements from time to time has been impossible to ignore. In this way, the flashcards may be useful for more than just GRE study. We know graduate students who find it very useful to know this stuff, even for a written PhD qualifiter examination. You often need to know the simple introductory limit of a physical model you’re investigating.

To repeat ourselves, the important point we want to make about these cards is that the test-taker must remember many definitions, formulas, and phenomena. If she does not remember, for example, what the Zeeman effect is, she can only guess at a problem involving that effect. As another example, she should not take time to derive the two-slit interference formula, d sin θ = n λ for the maxima. She should just know it by heart, helped by visualizing the path difference that led to the formula! Indeed, there are only 1.7 minutes per problem for the 2 hour and 50 minute exam.

The subject list and approximate percentage of problems devoted to each subject according to the GRE Educational Testing Service (as of 2017):

Classical mechanics = 20%

Electromagnetism = 18%

Quantum mechanics = 12%

Atomic Physics = 10%

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics = 10%

Optics and wave phenomena (most waves, very little ray/geometric optics) = 9%

Special relativity = 6%

Laboratory methods = 6%

Specialized topics (nuclear and particle physics, condensed matter physics, astrophysics, mathematical methods, computer applications) = 9%

#### Correlated with this, the numbers of cards for a little more detailed list of subjects in our set of cards are as follows:

Classical mechanics = 33 cards

Electromagnetism = 29 cards

Quantum mechanics and atomic physics = 40 cards

Thermal physics = 23 cards

Relativity = 12 cards

Oscillations = 14 cards

Wave optics = 14 cards

Ray optics = 27 cards

Laboratory and electronics = 19 cards

Condensed matter physics = 14 cards

Nuclear and particle physics = 26 cards

Mathematics and statistics = 20 cards

Cosmology = 10 cards

Fluid physics = 3 cards

plus two advice cards on useful tactics for taking the test

It is seen that topics with smaller probability of appearing in the exam still have a large number of cards (especially ray optics and the subjects listed after it). This is largely due to our attempt to help the students study material to which they in fact may not even have much exposure at this time in their coursework. The cards are labeled by subject, and numbered within each subject. (e.g., the 23 Thermal Physics flashcards are labeled 1-TH to 23-TH).

In addition we’d like to use this opportunity to tell students from outside CWRU about the wonderful world of physics here (a few extra cards illustrate some relevant CWRU facts).

### Student Testimonials (2020-2010 bookend examples)

The GRE flash cards were a wonderful study tool for me. I found them especially helpful in concert with Prof. Brown’s strategy to review them in 20-30 card installments right before re-working 10 problems at a time from the practice exams (as review after taking the practice exam). I also found the cards helpful as a quick review right before taking each practice exam under test conditions. The flashcards are categorized to make the ones I had most trouble remembering easy to find — and their order even became something of a memory tool. I went from a middling score in my first practice exam, to being quite happy with my score on the actual pGRE. The flashcards, and Prof. Brown’s approach to studying played a key role in my success.

— JRC (Joshua Chiel MS-BS 2020)

“The GRE flashcards were immensely helpful to me. After taking one practice test and looking over the flashcards, I could immediately tell what subjects I needed to study most. The flashcards are organized by subject, so it was easy to find the flashcards that would help me most. I studied the flashcards between practice exams, and I saw my raw score improve by 20 points in a very short amount of time! I was incredibly happy with my actual GRE physics score, and I know that the flashcards contributed immensely to my success.”

— GKK (Gareth Kafka BS 2010)

### Get the flashcards

To get a free electronic set of our flashcards, either a web app or an Android smartphone app, please fill out this online form and we will email you the link.

If we know your email address, we can follow up with updates and corrections (and, we confess, hope to see if students who apply to our graduate school have also looked at these cards). New (few) corrections are being made from time to time including adding or consolidating a card once in a while.

An old file, GREflashcardcorrectionsJuly2015.pdf, has corrections/clarifications to older versions of the web app and the printed copies, including hard copy version 5.0. And it includes the “honor roll” for folks who have sent in corrections to us for the flashcards.

Best of luck on the physics GRE if you’re taking it, and, really, best luck in everything. (And remember to let us know if you find any card that seems to have an error or some deficiency in it!)

Doc Brown (robert.brown@case.edu)

CWRU Physics Department