Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but as professionals, we often fail to appreciate exactly what we are doing with it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language that requires both more subtlety and more skills than are typically taught in math courses. Research with students in classes ranging from algebra-based physics to graduate quantum mechanics indicates that (1) we sometimes don’t appreciate the skills students need to solve theÊproblems we assign, and (2) students problems are sometimes with their expectations about what they are supposed to be doing rather than with their math skills. Implications for instruction will be discussed.