The detailed study of cosmic microwave background anisotropies has contributed to transform cosmology into a quantitative, data driven field. Techniques such as weak gravitational lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations have the potential to become new powerhouses of precision cosmology over the next decade, taking cosmology into a new era of exciting discoveries.

In this talk I will review recent developments towards the achievement of precision cosmology and present the current cosmological concordance model. I will discuss outstanding challenges and future avenues of investigation, and I will survey the evolution of the field in the next 25 years.