In this talk I will present a biophysical perspective that describes the fate of nanoparticles in both the aqueous phase and in living systems. Specifically, I will show the correlations between the physicochemistry of fullerenes and their uptake, translocation, transformation, transport, and biodistribution in mammalian and plant systems, at the molecular, cellular, and whole organism level. In addition to fullerenes and their structural derivatives, I will describe the biological and environmental implications and applications of the condensed matter of carbon nanotubes and the soft matter of dendritic polymers. The main purpose of this talk is to demonstrate the vast opportunities and unique advantages of applying experimental and simulation biophysics and nanoscience to the research field of understanding nanoparticles at large. A brief review of my other research interests will be given at the beginning of the talk.