Neutrino mass and oscillation have been convincingly demonstrated in the recent atmospheric, solar, and reactor neutrino data. Some of the fundamental neutrino properties, however, are yet unknown. The data do not tell us the absolute mass scale of neutrinos and whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. To explain all existing data in neutrino oscillation physics additional right-handed, sterile neutrino states have been postulated. A variety of experiments including direct neutrino mass measurements and double beta-decay experiments are under way to address these questions. Zero-neutrino double beta decay will address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of neutrinos, and their masses. Searches for sterile neutrinos may open the window to a complete new set of particles. We will review neutrino phenomenology and models and describe selected key experiments that will shape our understanding of the fundamental properties of neutrinos.
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